I am asked this question a lot. Here I list main differences, so you'll never get puzzled by words “vedic” and “jyotish” again.
Short answer: Vedic astrology uses more accurate astronomical data to calculate the chart. So if you looked up at the sky at the time and place of your birth, Vedic astrology would use precise planet positions for your birth chart.
Longer answer: Vedic astrology uses Sidereal zodiac, Western astrology uses Tropical zodiac. Zodiac is the path that Sun travels through over the course of 1 year. This path is divided into 12 parts, or zodiac signs. Planets transit along zodiac. Astronomically speaking, the actual position of the Sun against that path shifts every century by 1.4 degrees. This is called precession. 2000 years ago Sidereal and Tropical systems used the same point to calculate the beginning of zodiac. However, over time, due to precession this point has shifted by 24 degrees. Vedic astrology takes into account this difference, while Western astrology does not. So Vedic Astrology chart will show more accurate picture of stars in the heaven at the time of your birth according to astronomy. Due to 24 degrees difference, planets position, houses and rising signs will be different from Western Astrological chart. This is also a reason why new/full moon happen in different signs from Western Astrology.
Vedic astrology was originated in India, Western astrology was originated in Greece. The word "Vedic" comes from a term “Vedas", ancient Indian writings of the yogis and sages. It is part of a complex and very sophisticated system of teachings that include philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, grammar and other sciences.
Vedic astrology is just a western term for Jyotish, which means “the lord if light” as it shines the light on the person’s life. It is called “eye of the Vedas”, because it allows you to see where you are going.
Jyotish, being a part of